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美国教育界最热门单字「Grit」:比智商、天赋更重要的成功特

2020-07-30

什幺是「Grit 」?

自从心理学家Angela Duckworth提出「grit」是比智商、天赋更重要的成功特质后,这个字成为教育界中最热门的字。这里指的意志力(grit),是追求长期目标的热情与毅力;不只是努力一周或一个月,而是持续长达几年的努力,直到目标实现为止。

简而言之,即使在遭受困境失败后,这个长期目标依然坚固毫不动摇(steadfast)。值得一提的是,我们可以藉由成长型思维模式来锻鍊意志力,例如:寻求协助、尝试新方法、从挫败中学习等,这些都是靠着后天训练变得更强壮,帮助我们跳脱天生的限制,往前迈进。

心理学家Angela Duckworth

现于美国宾州大学担任心理学助理教授。2013年获得麦克阿瑟天才奖(MacArthur Genius Award),同年4月在TED演讲「Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance」,点阅逾900万人次;今年5月出版的书,亦成为纽约时报畅销书。

Business Insider reports that Duckworth credits" (1) grit " , a combination of passion and ( 2) perseverance, for success over intelligence or innate talent. In one of her book's early chapters, Duckworth lays out two equations that show how you get from talent to success:

    Talent x effort = skill  Skill x effort = achievement

    Duckworth is quick to note that external opportunities, like having a great coach or teacher, matter too. But when it comes to the psychology of success and achievement, effort is huge.


    商业内幕报导,Duckworth强调热情与毅力结合的「意志力」,比智力或者天赋更是成功的关键。在她的书中的前几章,列出了两个方程式,解释如何藉由天份达到成功:

      天分x努力=技能  技能x努力=成就

      Duckworth紧接着指出,要获得成功、成就,外在机会同样重要,例如,好的指导教练或老师。但内在心理层面,肯努力的影响至关重大。


      Duckworth indicates multiple examples in her book that grittier people reached higher performance. " For instance, she conducted a study that found "grittier" kids — those who studied more and competed in more spelling bees — were more likely to perform well in the Scripps National Spelling Bee. To be sure, verbal intelligence also mattered, but verbally talented spellers didn't necessarily study or practice more. Similarly, Duckworth found that West Point(3) cadets who scored higher on the grit scale were more likely to stick it out through " (4)Beast Barracks," an intensive seven-week training program.

      As Duckworth states " Our potential is one thing. What we do with it is quite another. "


      Duckworth在书中举出一些案例,意志力较高的人有较好的表现,例如: 她的研究发现,在全美儿童拼字比赛中,意志力强的孩子学得多、参加的拼字竞赛多,更容易在全美竞赛中胜出。当然,语言天分也很重要,但是比赛中天分高的孩子,不见得会花更多时间学习、练习。类似案例还有,Duckworth发现西点军校的学生,获得较高意志力评分者,有更高的机会通过「野兽营」的7周密集训练课程。

      Duckworth在书中说:我们的潜力是一回事,我们做什幺又是另外一回事。

      In conclusion," believing in grit is about believing that your personal and professional success is largely in your own hands. "

      结论是,相信意志力,就是相信个人的成功、事业上的成功,掌握在自己手上。

      文章相关字彙

      1. grit (n.):砂砾、意志力。动词:撒砂砾在路面上,以防路滑。

      It takes true grit to stand up to a bully.对抗恃强凌弱者确实需要勇气

      grit one's teeth: 因愤怒而咬牙切齿 / 咬紧牙关去面对困境

      Starting your own business can be very tough, but you just have to grit your teeth and keep working at it.
      创业初期不易,但你就是要咬紧牙关持续努力去克服困境。

      2. perseverance (n.) 坚持不懈
      persevering(adj.) = persistent
      persevere(v.) = persist +in / with

      Excellent marks are a result of hard work and perseverance.
      优异的成绩来自于坚持不懈的努力

      The education director is persevering in his attempt to obtain additional funding for the school.
      教育部长坚持不懈地为学校争取更多的资金

      3. Cadets:军校或警校学生

      4. Beast Barracks 野兽营,西点军校的学生刚入学时,让他们从一般人蜕变为军人的过渡训练,其淘汰率超过10%。

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